Many adult dogs are not fully housetrained. This can be for a variety of reasons, including an owner's lack
of commitment or training knowledge, illness, or the dog's prior history. Fortunately, adult dogs, even
those who've had a disadvantaged start in life, can learn an appropriate time and place to go! By following
the ten steps below, you'll be well on your way to having a housetrained adult dog.
Step 1. Supervise your dog inside.
How thoroughly and consistently you watch your dog when he's inside will determine how successful you
are at preventing accidents, and how quickly your dog is housetrained. Supervision means watching your
dog at ALL times. If you can't give your dog your undivided attention, use the "umbilical cord" technique.
For example, when you're watching TV, have your dog on leash and tie the opposite end around your belt
or waist. The leash should be short enough to alert you if your dog makes a move to eliminate, but long
enough so he can lie or sit at your feet. When you're in the house, but not watching your dog, he should be
confined as described in Step 2.
Step 2. Confine your dog when you are unable to supervise her.
If you can't supervise your dog, leave her confined in a crate, x-pen (a metal exercise pen for dogs that
comes in a variety of sizes), bathroom or other secure space small enough that she won't want to
eliminate. Baby gates can also be used to block off a small portion of a room. In the beginning, she should
only have enough room to stand up, turn around and lie comfortably on her bed. The reasoning is that
dogs are less likely to soil where they sleep or eat.
Note : This normal instinct is often damaged in dogs raised in places such as pet stores or puppy mills, by
the experience of living their formative weeks or months in a tiny cage where they could not avoid
sleeping in their own waste. These dogs can be housetrained, but extra patience may be required as you
work through the steps.
Step 3. If you leave the house for longer than your dog can "hold it," think of alternatives.
It's important to note that while some dogs can go all day without eliminating, other dogs find it
physically impossible - particularly elderly, young and small dogs, or dogs with a medical problem. If it's
not possible for your dog to hold it for the time you are away from the home, have a neighbour, pet sitter
or dog walker drop by during the day as needed to let him out, or consider day boarding your dog at a
veterinarian or elsewhere. This is also helpful if your dog hasn't yet learned to hold it for longer periods.
If this is not possible, confine him to an area where toilet behavior is acceptable, so he does not make
housesoiling mistakes around the house. This larger confinement area, or doggy playroom, should have a
doggy toilet in the furthest corner away from your dog's bed and water. Only use your small confinement
area when you are in the house and available to take him outside regularly. That way he can learn to hold
it when you are at home.
Step 4. If your dog already eliminates in her confined space, use a new one.
If your dog is currently eliminating in her crate or other confined space, try to create a new living area
with no former associations for your dog as a place to eliminate. For example, if she has been using a
crate in the kitchen with a pillow for bedding, change to an x-pen in the living room padded with a
blanket or thick layer of newspapers. Help your dog adjust to her new space by leaving her alone there for
brief periods while eating meals or treats.
Step 5. Establish a routine and stick to it.
Make your dog's elimination needs more predictable by setting up regular feeding (remove the food
between meals), sleeping and waking times. Keep an elimination log (with times) over 10 days so you can
start anticipating his needs before he has the opportunity to make a mistake. At the same time make sure
you take your dog outside as soon as he wakes, after he eats or drinks, after play, before leaving home, as
soon as you arrive home, and before bed - at a minimum!
Step 6. Show your dog where to eliminate.
Go with your dog on leash when you put her outside, and when she goes in the correct spot immediately
reward her decision with a super yummy treat and praise. You want your dog to think, "I can't wait to do
my business in the yard and get treats!"
Step 7. Look for clues your dog needs to go outside.
Dogs don't always bark or paw at the door to be let outside. Common clues your dog needs to eliminate
include acting restless such as pacing, whining, sniffing, leaving the room, and circling just before
eliminating - but many clues are very small and unique to your pet.
Step 8. OOOps! Don't punish accidents.
If you do catch your pet in the act (mid-stream), you can interrupt with a clap or other noise and then rush
him outside. Reward him as soon as he finishes! Never reprimand or punish your dog if you catch him in
the act or find the accident afterwards. All it will do is make your dog afraid of you and/or eliminating in
front of you - and make housetraining much more difficult. Instead, reread this article to determine any
steps you missed - and keep working with your dog to help him succeed!
Step 9. Remove pet odours completely.
Thorough cleaning of areas where your dog has soiled indoors is critical to successful housetraining.
Areas that smell like urine or feces flash like washroom signs - encouraging your dog to continue soiling
in the area. Clean up the accident immediately with an enzyme neutralizing cleaner, available at pet
stores. Avoid using chemicals, especially those with strong odours, such as ammonia or vinegar, that don't
eliminate the odour. For washable items, add baking soda to your regular detergent or an enzymatic
cleaner. For carpeted areas or upholstery, soak up as much of the urine as possible with newspaper and
paper towels. Repeat until the area is barely damp. Rinse the area with clean, cool water and dry again
and use an enzymatic cleaner to get rid of the smell. You may need to replace an area of the carpeting if
urine soaks into the underpadding and your dog continues to return to the same spot. If your dog soils in a
particular room or area, try to block off that area or room from your dog while he is housetraining.
Step 10. Gradually expand the "safe" area.
After you've established an inside routine where your dog is either supervised or confined, is taken
outside with you on a schedule, and doesn't have any accidents for a month, slowly start to increase her
freedom indoors. For example, if her confined space is a crate, you might begin by moving her to an x-
pen or a portion of the kitchen blocked off with baby gates. As she proves herself reliable in the slightly
larger area, leave her confined to the whole kitchen. Slowly increase her confinement area until she is
reliable within your entire home. If your dog makes a mistake, which is to be expected while she's
learning, back up to the last reliable step where she was successful and take it slower.
Patience and praise bring success.
Remember there is no magic time for when your dog will be housetrained. It depends on many factors
including the dog, you, and the situation. Supervise and confine, stick to a schedule, reward him when he
goes outside, never punish him for making mistakes, and with diligence you can avoid most accidents
within a few weeks if not earlier.
Not all housesoiling problems are related to a lack of housetraining. Consider:
- Health problems. Some medications, illnesses and infections can contribute to housesoiling.
- Marking. Male and female dogs can mark territory with urine and feces outside and inside.
- Submissive urination. Dogs who pee when they meet new people, during greetings or during
play may be exhibiting submissive or excitement urination - a confidence issue.
- Fears/phobias. Loud or frightening noises such as those made by thunderstorms can cause dogs
to urinate or defecate in fear.
- Separation anxiety. Dogs with separation anxiety may eliminate a short time after you leave the
house (come back to the house in 30 minutes to check if you're not sure). Consult with a behavior
professional to help resolve the dog's anxiety.